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2009年3月4日

利用Nginx替代apache实现高性能的Web环境 - 已使用 Google 工具栏发送

利用Nginx替代apache实现高性能的Web环境
更新时间:2007-11-27
作者:NetSeek
欢迎转载,转载请注明出处: http://bbs.linuxpk.com/
原文链接:http://bbs.linuxpk.com/thread-11845-1-1.html

Nginx介绍:
Nginx发音为[engine x],是由俄罗斯人Igor Sysoev建立的项目,基于BSD许可。
据说他当初是F5的成员之一,英文主页:http://nginx.net/。俄罗斯的一些大网站已经使用它超过两年多了, 一直表现不凡,相信想了解nginx的朋友都读过阿叶大哥的利用nginx实现负载均衡的文章相关链接见(六)。

测试环境:红动中国(redocn)提供运营服务器环境.

关于红动服务环境:
红动中国在早期利用apache环境,再加上一些优化的工作,一直是相对很稳定,但是最近由于网站发展,访问量越来越大,在线人数一多经常出现,负载过高,性能急剧下降,经过双木站长的同意,考虑是否能利用nginx来代替apache,经过长时间的观察目前nginx工作很稳定,系统也不会再说现高负载的状况,占用内存也很低,访问速率从用户体验来看明显有提升.

关于红动中国:
红动中国(redocn)论坛经过近1年的快速发展,目前日均页面访问量超过100万,位居全球设计论坛(中文)第1位,是国内最具影响力的设计论坛之一。目前论坛拥有近20万会员,包括众多设计界领军人物在内的行业中坚力量、相关艺术院校师生以及部分设计爱好者等。

迁移目标:实现网站论坛静态化,防盗链,下载并发数和速率限制,实现原站apache所具有的所有功能,将原apache环境下的站点全部迁移到Nginx

一.PHP(Fastcgi)编译安装
[root@att php-5.2.4]# cat in.sh./configure \

--prefix=/usr/local/php-fcgi \

--enable-fastcgi \

--enable-discard-path \

--enable-force-cgi-redirect \

--with-config-file-path=/usr/local/php-fcgi/etc \

--enable-zend-multibyte \

--with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql \

--with-libxml-dir=/usr/local/libxml2 \

--with-gd=/usr/local/gd2 \

--with-jpeg-dir \

--with-png-dir \

--with-bz2 \

--with-freetype-dir \

--with-iconv-dir \

--with-zlib-dir \

--with-openssl=/usr/local/openssl \

--with-mcrypt=/usr/local/libmcrypt \

--enable-sysvsem \

--enable-inline-optimization \

--enable-soap \

--enable-gd-native-ttf \

--enable-ftp \

--enable-mbstring \

--enable-exif \

--disable-debug \

--disable-ipv6

make

make install

cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/php-fcgi/etc/php.ini
复制代码注:关于如何安装gd库,mysql的编译安装,本文将不介绍,本文重点在于介绍nginx的安装与配置,如想了解其它相关的问题可以到
LinuxPk去找相关的贴子(http://bbs.linuxpk.com/)

二.Nginx编译安装
1.创建nginx运行用户和虚拟主机目录groupadd www -g 48

useradd -u 48 -g www www

mkdir -p /data/www/wwwroot

chown -R www:www /data/www/wwwroot
复制代码2.安装lighttpd中附带的spawn-fcgi,用来启动php-cgi
先编译安装lighttpd产生spawn-fcgi二进制文件.cd /usr/local/src/lighttpd-1.4.18

cp src/spawn-fcgi /usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/
复制代码启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的8085端口,进程数为250(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启25个进程),用户为www:
/usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 8085 -C 250 -u www -f /usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/php-cgi

3.nginx的安装与配置
安装Nginx所需的pcre库:
http://ftp.dk.debian.org/exim/pcre/pcre-7.3.tar.gz tar zxvf pcre-7.2.tar.gz

cd pcre-7.2/

./configure

make && make install

cd ../

http://sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.5.32.tar.gz

tar zxvf nginx-0.5.32.tar.gz

cd nginx-0.5.32

./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/nginx/ --with-http_stub_status_module --with-

openssl=/usr/local/openssl

make && make install


复制代码此模块非核心模块,需要在编译的时候手动添加编译参数 --with-http_stub_status_module
配置nginx

三.Nginx主配置文件及PHP支持.

1.nginx.conf 主配置文件的配置
#cd /usr/local/nginx/conf/
#cp nginx.conf nginx.conf.cao
#cat /dev/null > nginx.conf
#vi nginx.conf //主配置文件user www www;

worker_processes 10;

#error_log logs/error.log;

#error_log logs/error.log notice;

#error_log logs/error.log info;

pid /var/run/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.

worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;

events

{

use epoll;

#maxclient = worker_processes * worker_connections / cpu_number

worker_connections 51200;

}

http

{

include conf/mime.types;

default_type application/octet-stream;

log_format main '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] $request '

'"$status" $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '

'"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

#access_log /data/www/logs/access.log main;

#sendfile on;

tcp_nopush on;

tcp_nodelay off;

keepalive_timeout 60;

client_header_timeout 3m;

client_body_timeout 3m;

send_timeout 3m;

connection_pool_size 256;

client_header_buffer_size 1k;

large_client_header_buffers 4 2k;

request_pool_size 4k;

output_buffers 4 32k;

postpone_output 1460;

client_max_body_size 10m;

client_body_buffer_size 256k;

client_body_temp_path /dev/shm/client_body_temp;

proxy_temp_path /usr/local/nginx/proxy_temp;

fastcgi_temp_path /usr/local/nginx/fastcgi_temp;

#gzip

gzip on;

gzip_http_version 1.0;

gzip_comp_level 2;

gzip_proxied any;

gzip_types text/plain text/html text/css application/x-javascript text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript;

gzip_min_length 1100;

gzip_buffers 4 8k;

# The following includes are specified for virtual hosts //以下是加载虚拟主机配置.

#[url]www.redocn.com[/url]

include conf/vhosts/www_redocn_com.conf;

#bbs.redocn.com

include conf/vhosts/bbs_redocn_com.conf;

#blog.redocn.com

include conf/vhosts/blog_redocn_com.conf;

#down.redocn.com

include conf/vhosts/down_redocn_com.conf;

}
复制代码2.配置支持Fastcgi模式的PHP
[root@redocn conf]# cat enable_php5.conffastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:8085;

fastcgi_index index.php;

fastcgi_param GATEWAY_INTERFACE CGI/1.1;

fastcgi_param SERVER_SOFTWARE nginx;

#new ac upload

#fastcgi_pass_request_body off;

#client_body_in_file_only clean;

#fastcgi_param REQUEST_BODY_FILE $request_body_file;

#

fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string;

fastcgi_param REQUEST_METHOD $request_method;

fastcgi_param CONTENT_TYPE $content_type;

fastcgi_param CONTENT_LENGTH $content_length;

fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;

fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name;

fastcgi_param REQUEST_URI $request_uri;

fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_URI $document_uri;

fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_ROOT $document_root;

fastcgi_param SERVER_PROTOCOL $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR $remote_addr;

fastcgi_param REMOTE_PORT $remote_port;

fastcgi_param SERVER_ADDR $server_addr;

fastcgi_param SERVER_PORT $server_port;

fastcgi_param SERVER_NAME $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect

fastcgi_param REDIRECT_STATUS 200;
复制代码四,多虚拟主机应用配置案例.

#mkdir /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhosts //建立虚拟主机配置存放目录.
1.www.redocn.com //首站配置
[root@redocn vhosts]#vi www_redocn_com.confserver

{

listen 80;

server_name http://www.redocn.com/;

index index.html index.htm index.php;

root /data/www/wwwroot;

error_page 404 http://bbs.redocn.com/;

rewrite ^/bbs/(.*) http://bbs.redocn.com/$1;

location ~ .*\.php?$

{

include conf/enable_php5.conf;

}

}
复制代码注: 关于rewite需求,红动中国希望当用户访问http://www.redocn.com/bbs的时候自动转至http://bbs.redocn.com/
在原apache中利用redirect实现
Redirect /bbs http://bbs.redocn.com/

本文中在nginx下利用rewrite实现:
rewrite ^/bbs/(.*) http://bbs.redocn.com/$1;


2.[root@redocn vhosts] vi bbs_redocn_com.confserver

{

listen 80;

server_name bbs.redocn.com yan.redocn.com majia.redocn.com wt.redocn.com;

index index.html index.htm index.php;

root /home/www/htdocs/bbs;

access_log /var/log/nginx/access_bbs.redocn.com.log combined;

location / {

#bbs rewrite

rewrite ^/archiver/((fidtid)-[\w\-]+\.html)$ /archiver/index.php?$1 last;

rewrite ^/forum-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)\.html$ /forumdisplay.php?fid=$1&page=$2 last;

rewrite ^/thread-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)-([0-9]+)\.html$ /viewthread.php?tid=$1&extra=page\%3D$3&page=$2 last;

rewrite ^/space-(usernameuid)-(.+)\.html$ /space.php?$1=$2 last;

rewrite ^/tag-(.+)\.html$ /tag.php?name=$1 last;

break;

#error

error_page 404 /index.php;

#redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html

error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;

location = /50x.html {

root html;

}

}

#Preventing hot linking of images and other file types

location ~* ^.+\.(gifjpgpngswfflvrarzip)$ {

valid_referers none blocked server_names

*.redocn.com redocn.com *.taobao.com taobao.com

bbs.blueidea.com bbs.asiaci.com bbs.arting365.com forum.chinavisual.com softbbs.pconline.com.cn

bbs.chinaddu.com bbs.photops.com *.baidu.com *.google.com *.google.cn *.soso.com *.yahoo.com.cn

*.yahoo.cn;

if ($invalid_referer) {

rewrite ^/ http://www.redocn.com/images/redocn.gif;

#return 403;

}

}

#support php

location ~ .*\.php?$

{

include conf/enable_php5.conf;

}

}
复制代码注:
1.红动中国采用高性能的Discuz!论坛,原apache的rewrite规则几乎不要做什么修改即可全部移植到nginx下.
静态化配置见面上面的:#bbs rewrite部分.
2.一般论坛都希望实现防盗链功能,在apache很轻松实现?在nginx下是否容易实现呢?答案是肯定的. #Preventing hot linking of images and other file types

valid_referers none blocked server_names *.redocn.com redocn.com ...你允许连接的网址;

if ($invalid_referer) {

rewrite ^/ http://www.redocn.com/images/redocn.gif; //让别人盗链时显示你指定的图片.

#return 403;

}
复制代码3.blog.redocn.com
[root@redocn vhosts]#vi blog_redocn_com.confserver

{

listen 80;

server_name blog.redocn.com;

index index.html index.htm index.php;

root /data/www/wwwroot/blog;

error_page 404 http://bbs.redocn.com/;

#supsite rewrite

rewrite ^([0-9]+)/spacelist(.*)$ index.php?$1/action_spacelist$2;

rewrite ^([0-9]+)/viewspace_(.+)$ index.php?$1/action_viewspace_itemid_$2;

rewrite ^([0-9]+)/viewbbs_(.+)$ index.php?$1/action_viewbbs_tid_$2;

rewrite ^([0-9]+)/(.*)$ index.php?$1/$2;

rewrite ^([0-9]+)$ index.php?$1;

rewrite ^action_(.+)$ index.php?action_$1;

rewrite ^category_(.+)$ index.php?action_category_catid_$1;

rewrite ^itemlist_(.+)$ index.php?action_itemlist_catid_$1;

rewrite ^viewnews_(.+)$ index.php?action_viewnews_itemid_$1;

rewrite ^viewthread_(.+)$ index.php?action_viewthread_tid_$1;

rewrite ^index([\.a-zA-Z0-9]*)$ index.php;

rewrite ^html/([0-9]+)/viewnews_itemid_([0-9]+)\.html$ index.php?action_viewnews_itemid_$2;

rewrite ^/([0-9]+)/spacelist(.+)$ /index.php?uid/$1/action/spacelist/type$2;

rewrite ^/([0-9]+)/viewspace(.+)$ /index.php?uid/$1/action/viewspace/itemid$2;

rewrite ^/([0-9]+)/viewbbs(.+)$ /index.php?uid/$1/action/viewbbs/tid$2;

rewrite ^/([0-9]+)/(.*)$ /index.php?uid/$1/$2;

rewrite ^/([0-9]+)$ /index.php?uid/$1;

rewrite ^/action(.+)$ /index.php?action$1;

rewrite ^/category(.+)$ /index.php?action/category/catid$1;

rewrite ^/viewnews(.+)$ /index.php?action/viewnews/itemid$1;

rewrite ^/viewthread(.+)$ /index.php?action/viewthread/tid$1;

rewrite ^/mygroup(.+)$ /index.php?action/mygroup/gid$1;

location ~ .*\.php?$

{

include conf/enable_php5.conf;

}

}
复制代码注:blog采用功能强大的Supesite作为Blog站点: http://www.supesite.com/
1.Blog如何在Nginx里实现静态化,具体设置见,上面的#supesite rewrite

4.down.redocn.com
[root@redocn vhosts]# vi down_redocn_com.conflimit_zone one $binary_remote_addr 10m;

server

{

listen 80;

server_name down.redocn.com;

index index.html index.htm index.php;

root /data/www/wwwroot/down;

error_page 404 /index.php;

# redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html

error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;

location = /50x.html {

root html;

}

#Zone limit

location / {

limit_conn one 1;

limit_rate 20k;

}

# serve static files

location ~ ^/(imagesjavascriptjscssflashmediastatic)/ {

root /data/www/wwwroot/down;

expires 30d;

}

}
复制代码注:
由于现在的BT下载软件越来越多了,我们如何限制下载的并发数和速率呢?apache需要三方模块,nginx就不用了
在nginx利用两个指令即可实现:limit_zone(limit_conn) 来限制并发数,limit_rate来限制下载的速率,请看上面的配置实例.

5.启动nginx服务/usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 8085 -C 250 -u www -f/usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/php-cgi

/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
复制代码你可以把上面两条命令制做成系统启动服务脚本,相关的脚本在网上也很多,本文就不再贴出来了,给出一个实例链接:
http://topfunky.net/svn/shovel/nginx/init.d/nginx

五.问题及经验总结:
1.安装Discuz论坛后,无法上传大于M以上的附件?
在主配置文件里加入:client_max_body_size 10m; 详细指令说明请参见(六)提供的Wiki链接.

2.Discuz附件无法下载附件?
最近遇到一个奇怪的问题在nginx下discuz论坛无法下载附件,后来打开error_log才知道,仍后一看/usr/local分区满了,
清了一大堆无用文件后,马上就正常了.

以上是本人迁移和测试过程中遇到的两个小问题,在此附上说明,只是希望配置nginx的朋友不要犯我一样的问题.
欢迎联系NetSeek(狂热linux爱好者^_^ mailto:msn%3Acnseek@msn.com QQ:67888954 mailto:Gtalk%3Acnseek@gmail.com).

六.相关链接:
1.Discuz!.net高性能的PHP论坛程序 http://www.discuz.net/ Supesite: http://www.supesite.com/
2.Nginx参考文档:http://wiki.codemongers.com/
3.利用Nginx实现负载均衡(阿叶大哥的文章):http://www.imysql.com/comment/reply/210
4.linuxPk[Linux宝库]:http://bbs.linuxpk.com
5.红动中国 http://bbs.redocn.com/

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